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Resources:
Usability Testing
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Handy Hints for Web Design

XHTML Web Design for Beginners: Introduction

XHTML 1.0 Symbol Character References

Article Index

  1. XHTML 1.0 Latin-1 Character References
  2. XHTML 1.0 Special Character References
  3. XHTML 1.0 Symbol Character References

Introduction

This article details the symbol character references and corresponding entity references available to your XHTML 1.0 documents. This is the third of a series of three articles detailing each of the three sets laid out in the XHTML DTDs.

An explanation of character references will be given in part two of my article XHTML Web Design for Beginners. I decided to release these tables as separate articles in order to make them easily accessible to those who don’t want to read the series.

What the columns mean

The first column gives the named version of the entity, the second is the named entity itself. This allows you to see if that character reference works in the browser you are using to view this document via the named entity.

The third column gives the numeric entity, the fourth is the numeric entity itself. This allows you to see if that character reference works in the browser you are using to view this document via the numeric entity.

The fifth column is the description of the entity as found in the XHTML 1.0 DTDs at http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/dtds.html#a_dtd_Symbols.

Entity ReferenceTestCharacter ReferenceTestDescription
Latin Extended-B
ƒƒƒƒlatin small letter f with hook = function = florin, U+0192 ISOtech
Greek
ΑΑΑΑgreek capital letter alpha, U+0391
ΒΒΒΒgreek capital letter beta, U+0392
ΓΓΓΓgreek capital letter gamma, U+0393 ISOgrk3
ΔΔΔΔgreek capital letter delta, U+0394 ISOgrk3
ΕΕΕΕgreek capital letter epsilon, U+0395
ΖΖΖΖgreek capital letter zeta, U+0396
ΗΗΗΗgreek capital letter eta, U+0397
ΘΘΘΘgreek capital letter theta, U+0398 ISOgrk3
ΙΙΙΙgreek capital letter iota, U+0399
ΚΚΚΚgreek capital letter kappa, U+039A
ΛΛΛΛgreek capital letter lamda, U+039B ISOgrk3
ΜΜΜΜgreek capital letter mu, U+039C
ΝΝΝΝgreek capital letter nu, U+039D
ΞΞΞΞgreek capital letter xi, U+039E ISOgrk3
ΟΟΟΟgreek capital letter omicron, U+039F
ΠΠΠΠgreek capital letter pi, U+03A0 ISOgrk3
ΡΡΡΡgreek capital letter rho, U+03A1
there is no Sigmaf, and no U+03A2 character either
ΣΣΣΣgreek capital letter sigma, U+03A3 ISOgrk3
ΤΤΤΤgreek capital letter tau, U+03A4
ΥΥΥΥgreek capital letter upsilon, U+03A5 ISOgrk3
ΦΦΦΦgreek capital letter phi, U+03A6 ISOgrk3
ΧΧΧΧgreek capital letter chi, U+03A7
ΨΨΨΨgreek capital letter psi, U+03A8 ISOgrk3
ΩΩΩΩgreek capital letter omega, U+03A9 ISOgrk3
ααααgreek small letter alpha, U+03B1 ISOgrk3
ββββgreek small letter beta, U+03B2 ISOgrk3
γγγγgreek small letter gamma, U+03B3 ISOgrk3
δδδδgreek small letter delta, U+03B4 ISOgrk3
εεεεgreek small letter epsilon, U+03B5 ISOgrk3
ζζζζgreek small letter zeta, U+03B6 ISOgrk3
ηηηηgreek small letter eta, U+03B7 ISOgrk3
θθθθgreek small letter theta, U+03B8 ISOgrk3
ιιιιgreek small letter iota, U+03B9 ISOgrk3
κκκκgreek small letter kappa, U+03BA ISOgrk3
λλλλgreek small letter lamda, U+03BB ISOgrk3
μμμμgreek small letter mu, U+03BC ISOgrk3
ννννgreek small letter nu, U+03BD ISOgrk3
ξξξξgreek small letter xi, U+03BE ISOgrk3
οοοοgreek small letter omicron, U+03BF NEW
ππππgreek small letter pi, U+03C0 ISOgrk3
ρρρρgreek small letter rho, U+03C1 ISOgrk3
ςςςςgreek small letter final sigma, U+03C2 ISOgrk3
σσσσgreek small letter sigma, U+03C3 ISOgrk3
ττττgreek small letter tau, U+03C4 ISOgrk3
υυυυgreek small letter upsilon, U+03C5 ISOgrk3
φφφφgreek small letter phi, U+03C6 ISOgrk3
χχχχgreek small letter chi, U+03C7 ISOgrk3
ψψψψgreek small letter psi, U+03C8 ISOgrk3
ωωωωgreek small letter omega, U+03C9 ISOgrk3
ϑϑϑϑgreek theta symbol, U+03D1 NEW
ϒϒϒϒgreek upsilon with hook symbol, U+03D2 NEW
ϖϖϖϖgreek pi symbol, U+03D6 ISOgrk3
General Punctuation
bullet = black small circle, U+2022 ISOpub
bullet is NOT the same as bullet operator, U+2219
horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader, U+2026 ISOpub
prime = minutes = feet, U+2032 ISOtech
double prime = seconds = inches, U+2033 ISOtech
overline = spacing overscore, U+203E NEW
fraction slash, U+2044 NEW
Letterlike Symbols
script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p, U+2118 ISOamso
black-letter capital I = imaginary part, U+2111 ISOamso
black-letter capital R = real part symbol, U+211C ISOamso
trade mark sign, U+2122 ISOnum
alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal, U+2135 NEW
alef symbol is NOT the same as hebrew letter alef, U+05D0 although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters
Arrows
leftwards arrow, U+2190 ISOnum
upwards arrow, U+2191 ISOnum
rightwards arrow, U+2192 ISOnum
downwards arrow, U+2193 ISOnum
left right arrow, U+2194 ISOamsa
downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return, U+21B5 NEW
leftwards double arrow, U+21D0 ISOtech
Unicode does not say that lArr is the same as the ‘is implied by’ arrow but also does not have any other character for that function. So lArr can be used for ‘is implied by’ as ISOtech suggests
upwards double arrow, U+21D1 ISOamsa
rightwards double arrow, U+21D2 ISOtech
Unicode does not say this is the ‘implies’ character but does not have another character with this function so rArr can be used for ‘implies’ as ISOtech suggests
downwards double arrow, U+21D3 ISOamsa
left right double arrow, U+21D4 ISOamsa
Mathematical Operators
for all, U+2200 ISOtech
partial differential, U+2202 ISOtech
there exists, U+2203 ISOtech
empty set = null set, U+2205 ISOamso
nabla = backward difference, U+2207 ISOtech
element of, U+2208 ISOtech
not an element of, U+2209 ISOtech
contains as member, U+220B ISOtech
n-ary product = product sign, U+220F ISOamsb
prod is NOT the same character as U+03A0 ‘greek capital letter pi’ though the same glyph might be used for both
n-ary summation, U+2211 ISOamsb
sum is NOT the same character as U+03A3 ‘greek capital letter sigma’ though the same glyph might be used for both
minus sign, U+2212 ISOtech
asterisk operator, U+2217 ISOtech
square root = radical sign, U+221A ISOtech
proportional to, U+221D ISOtech
infinity, U+221E ISOtech
angle, U+2220 ISOamso
logical and = wedge, U+2227 ISOtech
logical or = vee, U+2228 ISOtech
intersection = cap, U+2229 ISOtech
union = cup, U+222A ISOtech
integral, U+222B ISOtech
therefore, U+2234 ISOtech
tilde operator = varies with = similar to, U+223C ISOtech
tilde operator is NOT the same character as the tilde, U+007E, although the same glyph might be used to represent both
approximately equal to, U+2245 ISOtech
almost equal to = asymptotic to, U+2248 ISOamsr
not equal to, U+2260 ISOtech
identical to, U+2261 ISOtech
less-than or equal to, U+2264 ISOtech
greater-than or equal to, U+2265 ISOtech
subset of, U+2282 ISOtech
superset of, U+2283 ISOtech
not a subset of, U+2284 ISOamsn
subset of or equal to, U+2286 ISOtech
superset of or equal to, U+2287 ISOtech
circled plus = direct sum, U+2295 ISOamsb
circled times = vector product, U+2297 ISOamsb
up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular, U+22A5 ISOtech
dot operator, U+22C5 ISOamsb
dot operator is NOT the same character as U+00B7 middle dot
Miscellaneous Technical
left ceiling = APL upstile, U+2308 ISOamsc
right ceiling, U+2309 ISOamsc
left floor = APL downstile, U+230A ISOamsc
right floor, U+230B ISOamsc
left-pointing angle bracket = bra, U+2329 ISOtech
lang is NOT the same character as U+003C ‘less than sign’ or U+2039 ‘single left-pointing angle quotation mark’
right-pointing angle bracket = ket, U+232A ISOtech
rang is NOT the same character as U+003E ‘greater than sign’ or U+203A ‘single right-pointing angle quotation mark’
Geometric Shapes
lozenge, U+25CA ISOpub
Miscellaneous Symbols
black spade suit, U+2660 ISOpub
black here seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow
black club suit = shamrock, U+2663 ISOpub
black heart suit = valentine, U+2665 ISOpub
black diamond suit, U+2666 ISOpub
XHTML Web Design for Beginners: Introduction

XHTML 1.0 Special Character References

Article Index

  1. XHTML 1.0 Latin-1 Character References
  2. XHTML 1.0 Special Character References
  3. XHTML 1.0 Symbol Character References

Introduction

This article details the special character references and corresponding entity references available to your XHTML 1.0 documents. This is the second of a series of three articles detailing each of the three sets laid out in the XHTML DTDs.

An explanation of character references will be given in part two of my article XHTML Web Design for Beginners. I decided to release these tables as separate articles in order to make them easily accessible to those who don’t want to read the series.

What the columns mean

The first column gives the named version of the entity, the second is the named entity itself. This allows you to see if that character reference works in the browser you are using to view this document via the named entity.

The third column gives the numeric entity, the fourth is the numeric entity itself. This allows you to see if that character reference works in the browser you are using to view this document via the numeric entity.

The fifth column is the description of the entity as found in the XHTML 1.0 DTDs at http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/dtds.html#a_dtd_Special_characters.

Entity ReferenceTestCharacter ReferenceTestDescription
C0 Controls and Basic Latin
quotation mark, U+0022 ISOnum
&&&&ampersand, U+0026 ISOnum
<<<<less-than sign, U+003C ISOnum
>>>>greater-than sign, U+003E ISOnum
apostrophe = APL quote, U+0027 ISOnum
Latin Extended-A
ŒŒŒŒlatin capital ligature OE, U+0152 ISOlat2
œœœœlatin small ligature oe, U+0153 ISOlat2
note: ligature is a misnomer, this is a separate character in some languages
ŠŠŠŠlatin capital letter S with caron, U+0160 ISOlat2
ššššlatin small letter s with caron, U+0161 ISOlat2
ŸŸŸŸlatin capital letter Y with diaeresis, U+0178 ISOlat2
Spacing Modifier Letters
ˆˆˆˆmodifier letter circumflex accent, U+02C6 ISOpub
˜˜˜˜small tilde, U+02DC ISOdia
General Punctuation
en space, U+2002 ISOpub
em space, U+2003 ISOpub
thin space, U+2009 ISOpub
zero width non-joiner, U+200C NEW RFC 2070
zero width joiner, U+200D NEW RFC 2070
left-to-right mark, U+200E NEW RFC 2070
right-to-left mark, U+200F NEW RFC 2070
en dash, U+2013 ISOpub
em dash, U+2014 ISOpub
left single quotation mark, U+2018 ISOnum
right single quotation mark, U+2019 ISOnum
single low-9 quotation mark, U+201A NEW
left double quotation mark, U+201C ISOnum
right double quotation mark, U+201D ISOnum
double low-9 quotation mark, U+201E NEW
dagger, U+2020 ISOpub
double dagger, U+2021 ISOpub
per mille sign, U+2030 ISOtech
single left-pointing angle quotation mark, U+2039 ISO proposed
note:lsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized
single right-pointing angle quotation mark, U+203A ISO proposed
note:rsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized
Currency Symbols
euro sign, U+20AC NEW
XHTML Web Design for Beginners: Introduction

XHTML 1.0 Latin-1 Character References

Article Index

  1. XHTML 1.0 Latin-1 Character References
  2. XHTML 1.0 Special Character References
  3. XHTML 1.0 Symbol Character References

Introduction

This article details the Latin-1 character references and corresponding entity references available to your XHTML 1.0 documents. This is the first of a series of three articles detailing each of the three sets laid out in the XHTML DTDs.

An explanation of character references will be given in part two of my article XHTML Web Design for Beginners. I decided to release these tables as separate articles in order to make them easily accessible to those who don’t want to read the series.

What the columns mean

The first column gives the named version of the entity, the second is the named entity itself. This allows you to see if that character reference works in the browser you are using to view this document via the named entity.

The third column gives the numeric entity, the fourth is the numeric entity itself. This allows you to see if that character reference works in the browser you are using to view this document via the numeric entity.

The fifth column is the description of the entity as found in the XHTML 1.0 DTDs at http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/dtds.html#a_dtd_Latin-1_characters.

Entity ReferenceTestCharacter ReferenceTestDescription
    no-break space = non-breaking space, U+00A0 ISOnum
¡¡¡¡inverted exclamation mark, U+00A1 ISOnum
¢¢¢¢cent sign, U+00A2 ISOnum
££££pound sign, U+00A3 ISOnum
¤¤¤¤currency sign, U+00A4 ISOnum
¥¥¥¥yen sign = yuan sign, U+00A5 ISOnum
¦¦¦¦broken bar = broken vertical bar, U+00A6 ISOnum
§§§§section sign, U+00A7 ISOnum
¨¨¨¨diaeresis = spacing diaeresis, U+00A8 ISOdia
©©©©copyright sign, U+00A9 ISOnum
ªªªªfeminine ordinal indicator, U+00AA ISOnum
««««left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet, U+00AB ISOnum
¬¬¬¬not sign = angled dash, U+00AC ISOnum
­­­­soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen, U+00AD ISOnum
®®®®registered sign = registered trade mark sign, U+00AE ISOnum
¯¯¯¯macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar, U+00AF ISOdia
°°°°degree sign, U+00B0 ISOnum
±±±±plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign, U+00B1 ISOnum
²²²²superscript two = superscript digit two = squared, U+00B2 ISOnum
³³³³superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed, U+00B3 ISOnum
´´´´acute accent = spacing acute, U+00B4 ISOdia
µµµµmicro sign, U+00B5 ISOnum
pilcrow sign = paragraph sign, U+00B6 ISOnum
····middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot, U+00B7 ISOnum
¸¸¸¸cedilla = spacing cedilla, U+00B8 ISOdia
¹¹¹¹superscript one = superscript digit one, U+00B9 ISOnum
ººººmasculine ordinal indicator, U+00BA ISOnum
»»»»right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet, U+00BB ISOnum
¼¼¼¼vulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter, U+00BC ISOnum
½½½½vulgar fraction one half = fraction one half, U+00BD ISOnum
¾¾¾¾vulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters, U+00BE ISOnum
¿¿¿¿inverted question mark = turned question mark, U+00BF ISOnum
ÀÀÀÀlatin capital letter A with grave = latin capital letter A grave, U+00C0 ISOlat1
ÁÁÁÁlatin capital letter A with acute, U+00C1 ISOlat1
ÂÂÂÂlatin capital letter A with circumflex, U+00C2 ISOlat1
ÃÃÃÃlatin capital letter A with tilde, U+00C3 ISOlat1
ÄÄÄÄlatin capital letter A with diaeresis, U+00C4 ISOlat1
ÅÅÅÅlatin capital letter A with ring above = latin capital letter A ring, U+00C5 ISOlat1
ÆÆÆÆlatin capital letter AE = latin capital ligature AE, U+00C6 ISOlat1
ÇÇÇÇlatin capital letter C with cedilla, U+00C7 ISOlat1
ÈÈÈÈlatin capital letter E with grave, U+00C8 ISOlat1
ÉÉÉÉlatin capital letter E with acute, U+00C9 ISOlat1
ÊÊÊÊlatin capital letter E with circumflex, U+00CA ISOlat1
ËËËËlatin capital letter E with diaeresis, U+00CB ISOlat1
ÌÌÌÌlatin capital letter I with grave, U+00CC ISOlat1
ÍÍÍÍlatin capital letter I with acute, U+00CD ISOlat1
ÎÎÎÎlatin capital letter I with circumflex, U+00CE ISOlat1
ÏÏÏÏlatin capital letter I with diaeresis, U+00CF ISOlat1
ÐÐÐÐlatin capital letter ETH, U+00D0 ISOlat1
ÑÑÑÑlatin capital letter N with tilde, U+00D1 ISOlat1
ÒÒÒÒlatin capital letter O with grave, U+00D2 ISOlat1
ÓÓÓÓlatin capital letter O with acute, U+00D3 ISOlat1
ÔÔÔÔlatin capital letter O with circumflex, U+00D4 ISOlat1
ÕÕÕÕlatin capital letter O with tilde, U+00D5 ISOlat1
ÖÖÖÖlatin capital letter O with diaeresis, U+00D6 ISOlat1
××××multiplication sign, U+00D7 ISOnum
ØØØØlatin capital letter O with stroke = latin capital letter O slash, U+00D8 ISOlat1
ÙÙÙÙlatin capital letter U with grave, U+00D9 ISOlat1
ÚÚÚÚlatin capital letter U with acute, U+00DA ISOlat1
ÛÛÛÛlatin capital letter U with circumflex, U+00DB ISOlat1
ÜÜÜÜlatin capital letter U with diaeresis, U+00DC ISOlat1
ÝÝÝÝlatin capital letter Y with acute, U+00DD ISOlat1
ÞÞÞÞlatin capital letter THORN, U+00DE ISOlat1
ßßßßlatin small letter sharp s = ess-zed, U+00DF ISOlat1
ààààlatin small letter a with grave = latin small letter a grave, U+00E0 ISOlat1
áááálatin small letter a with acute, U+00E1 ISOlat1
ââââlatin small letter a with circumflex, U+00E2 ISOlat1
ããããlatin small letter a with tilde, U+00E3 ISOlat1
äääälatin small letter a with diaeresis, U+00E4 ISOlat1
åååålatin small letter a with ring above = latin small letter a ring, U+00E5 ISOlat1
æææælatin small letter ae = latin small ligature ae, U+00E6 ISOlat1
ççççlatin small letter c with cedilla, U+00E7 ISOlat1
èèèèlatin small letter e with grave, U+00E8 ISOlat1
éééélatin small letter e with acute, U+00E9 ISOlat1
êêêêlatin small letter e with circumflex, U+00EA ISOlat1
ëëëëlatin small letter e with diaeresis, U+00EB ISOlat1
ììììlatin small letter i with grave, U+00EC ISOlat1
íííílatin small letter i with acute, U+00ED ISOlat1
îîîîlatin small letter i with circumflex, U+00EE ISOlat1
ïïïïlatin small letter i with diaeresis, U+00EF ISOlat1
ððððlatin small letter eth, U+00F0 ISOlat1
ññññlatin small letter n with tilde, U+00F1 ISOlat1
òòòòlatin small letter o with grave, U+00F2 ISOlat1
óóóólatin small letter o with acute, U+00F3 ISOlat1
ôôôôlatin small letter o with circumflex, U+00F4 ISOlat1
õõõõlatin small letter o with tilde, U+00F5 ISOlat1
öööölatin small letter o with diaeresis, U+00F6 ISOlat1
÷÷÷÷division sign, U+00F7 ISOnum
øøøølatin small letter o with stroke, = latin small letter o slash, U+00F8 ISOlat1
ùùùùlatin small letter u with grave, U+00F9 ISOlat1
úúúúlatin small letter u with acute, U+00FA ISOlat1
ûûûûlatin small letter u with circumflex, U+00FB ISOlat1
üüüülatin small letter u with diaeresis, U+00FC ISOlat1
ýýýýlatin small letter y with acute, U+00FD ISOlat1
þþþþlatin small letter thorn, U+00FE ISOlat1
ÿÿÿÿlatin small letter y with diaeresis, U+00FF ISOlat1
database

Understanding Relational Databases: Summary

Chapter Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Normalization
  3. Foreign Keys
  4. Denormalization
  5. Referential Integrity
  6. Summary

This is a free sample chapter from Beginning PHP 4 Databases published by Wrox Press.

Summary

In this chapter, we have discussed the principles behind relational database design. Let us skim through them here.

Data is stored in two-dimensional tables consisting of columns (fields) and rows (records). Multi-dimensional data is represented by a system of relationships among two-dimensional tables. This usually leads to data storage becoming redundant, and also difficult to maintain on account of addition and deletion anomalies. This is only the case if we do not normalize the data.

Normalization is a process by which redundancy and inconsistency are reduced or eliminated from a database’s schema. Denormalization is generally undesirable but sometimes necessary for performance reasons. Keys are fields or combinations of fields used to identify records. We also saw how entity relationship diagrams are used to map out the design of a database before it is built.