XHTML 1.0 Symbol Character References

XHTML Web Design for Beginners: Introduction

Article Index

  1. XHTML 1.0 Latin-1 Character References
  2. XHTML 1.0 Special Character References
  3. XHTML 1.0 Symbol Character References


This article details the symbol character references and corresponding entity references available to your XHTML 1.0 documents. This is the third of a series of three articles detailing each of the three sets laid out in the XHTML DTDs.

An explanation of character references will be given in part two of my article XHTML Web Design for Beginners. I decided to release these tables as separate articles in order to make them easily accessible to those who don’t want to read the series.

What the columns mean

The first column gives the named version of the entity, the second is the named entity itself. This allows you to see if that character reference works in the browser you are using to view this document via the named entity.

The third column gives the numeric entity, the fourth is the numeric entity itself. This allows you to see if that character reference works in the browser you are using to view this document via the numeric entity.

The fifth column is the description of the entity as found in the XHTML 1.0 DTDs at http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/dtds.html#a_dtd_Symbols.

Entity ReferenceTestCharacter ReferenceTestDescription
Latin Extended-B
ƒƒƒƒlatin small letter f with hook = function = florin, U+0192 ISOtech
ΑΑΑΑgreek capital letter alpha, U+0391
ΒΒΒΒgreek capital letter beta, U+0392
ΓΓΓΓgreek capital letter gamma, U+0393 ISOgrk3
ΔΔΔΔgreek capital letter delta, U+0394 ISOgrk3
ΕΕΕΕgreek capital letter epsilon, U+0395
ΖΖΖΖgreek capital letter zeta, U+0396
ΗΗΗΗgreek capital letter eta, U+0397
ΘΘΘΘgreek capital letter theta, U+0398 ISOgrk3
ΙΙΙΙgreek capital letter iota, U+0399
ΚΚΚΚgreek capital letter kappa, U+039A
ΛΛΛΛgreek capital letter lamda, U+039B ISOgrk3
ΜΜΜΜgreek capital letter mu, U+039C
ΝΝΝΝgreek capital letter nu, U+039D
ΞΞΞΞgreek capital letter xi, U+039E ISOgrk3
ΟΟΟΟgreek capital letter omicron, U+039F
ΠΠΠΠgreek capital letter pi, U+03A0 ISOgrk3
ΡΡΡΡgreek capital letter rho, U+03A1
there is no Sigmaf, and no U+03A2 character either
ΣΣΣΣgreek capital letter sigma, U+03A3 ISOgrk3
ΤΤΤΤgreek capital letter tau, U+03A4
ΥΥΥΥgreek capital letter upsilon, U+03A5 ISOgrk3
ΦΦΦΦgreek capital letter phi, U+03A6 ISOgrk3
ΧΧΧΧgreek capital letter chi, U+03A7
ΨΨΨΨgreek capital letter psi, U+03A8 ISOgrk3
ΩΩΩΩgreek capital letter omega, U+03A9 ISOgrk3
ααααgreek small letter alpha, U+03B1 ISOgrk3
ββββgreek small letter beta, U+03B2 ISOgrk3
γγγγgreek small letter gamma, U+03B3 ISOgrk3
δδδδgreek small letter delta, U+03B4 ISOgrk3
εεεεgreek small letter epsilon, U+03B5 ISOgrk3
ζζζζgreek small letter zeta, U+03B6 ISOgrk3
ηηηηgreek small letter eta, U+03B7 ISOgrk3
θθθθgreek small letter theta, U+03B8 ISOgrk3
ιιιιgreek small letter iota, U+03B9 ISOgrk3
κκκκgreek small letter kappa, U+03BA ISOgrk3
λλλλgreek small letter lamda, U+03BB ISOgrk3
μμμμgreek small letter mu, U+03BC ISOgrk3
ννννgreek small letter nu, U+03BD ISOgrk3
ξξξξgreek small letter xi, U+03BE ISOgrk3
οοοοgreek small letter omicron, U+03BF NEW
ππππgreek small letter pi, U+03C0 ISOgrk3
ρρρρgreek small letter rho, U+03C1 ISOgrk3
ςςςςgreek small letter final sigma, U+03C2 ISOgrk3
σσσσgreek small letter sigma, U+03C3 ISOgrk3
ττττgreek small letter tau, U+03C4 ISOgrk3
υυυυgreek small letter upsilon, U+03C5 ISOgrk3
φφφφgreek small letter phi, U+03C6 ISOgrk3
χχχχgreek small letter chi, U+03C7 ISOgrk3
ψψψψgreek small letter psi, U+03C8 ISOgrk3
ωωωωgreek small letter omega, U+03C9 ISOgrk3
ϑϑϑϑgreek theta symbol, U+03D1 NEW
ϒϒϒϒgreek upsilon with hook symbol, U+03D2 NEW
ϖϖϖϖgreek pi symbol, U+03D6 ISOgrk3
General Punctuation
bullet = black small circle, U+2022 ISOpub
bullet is NOT the same as bullet operator, U+2219
horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader, U+2026 ISOpub
prime = minutes = feet, U+2032 ISOtech
double prime = seconds = inches, U+2033 ISOtech
overline = spacing overscore, U+203E NEW
fraction slash, U+2044 NEW
Letterlike Symbols
script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p, U+2118 ISOamso
black-letter capital I = imaginary part, U+2111 ISOamso
black-letter capital R = real part symbol, U+211C ISOamso
trade mark sign, U+2122 ISOnum
alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal, U+2135 NEW
alef symbol is NOT the same as hebrew letter alef, U+05D0 although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters
leftwards arrow, U+2190 ISOnum
upwards arrow, U+2191 ISOnum
rightwards arrow, U+2192 ISOnum
downwards arrow, U+2193 ISOnum
left right arrow, U+2194 ISOamsa
downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return, U+21B5 NEW
leftwards double arrow, U+21D0 ISOtech
Unicode does not say that lArr is the same as the ‘is implied by’ arrow but also does not have any other character for that function. So lArr can be used for ‘is implied by’ as ISOtech suggests
upwards double arrow, U+21D1 ISOamsa
rightwards double arrow, U+21D2 ISOtech
Unicode does not say this is the ‘implies’ character but does not have another character with this function so rArr can be used for ‘implies’ as ISOtech suggests
downwards double arrow, U+21D3 ISOamsa
left right double arrow, U+21D4 ISOamsa
Mathematical Operators
for all, U+2200 ISOtech
partial differential, U+2202 ISOtech
there exists, U+2203 ISOtech
empty set = null set, U+2205 ISOamso
nabla = backward difference, U+2207 ISOtech
element of, U+2208 ISOtech
not an element of, U+2209 ISOtech
contains as member, U+220B ISOtech
n-ary product = product sign, U+220F ISOamsb
prod is NOT the same character as U+03A0 ‘greek capital letter pi’ though the same glyph might be used for both
n-ary summation, U+2211 ISOamsb
sum is NOT the same character as U+03A3 ‘greek capital letter sigma’ though the same glyph might be used for both
minus sign, U+2212 ISOtech
asterisk operator, U+2217 ISOtech
square root = radical sign, U+221A ISOtech
proportional to, U+221D ISOtech
infinity, U+221E ISOtech
angle, U+2220 ISOamso
logical and = wedge, U+2227 ISOtech
logical or = vee, U+2228 ISOtech
intersection = cap, U+2229 ISOtech
union = cup, U+222A ISOtech
integral, U+222B ISOtech
therefore, U+2234 ISOtech
tilde operator = varies with = similar to, U+223C ISOtech
tilde operator is NOT the same character as the tilde, U+007E, although the same glyph might be used to represent both
approximately equal to, U+2245 ISOtech
almost equal to = asymptotic to, U+2248 ISOamsr
not equal to, U+2260 ISOtech
identical to, U+2261 ISOtech
less-than or equal to, U+2264 ISOtech
greater-than or equal to, U+2265 ISOtech
subset of, U+2282 ISOtech
superset of, U+2283 ISOtech
not a subset of, U+2284 ISOamsn
subset of or equal to, U+2286 ISOtech
superset of or equal to, U+2287 ISOtech
circled plus = direct sum, U+2295 ISOamsb
circled times = vector product, U+2297 ISOamsb
up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular, U+22A5 ISOtech
dot operator, U+22C5 ISOamsb
dot operator is NOT the same character as U+00B7 middle dot
Miscellaneous Technical
left ceiling = APL upstile, U+2308 ISOamsc
right ceiling, U+2309 ISOamsc
left floor = APL downstile, U+230A ISOamsc
right floor, U+230B ISOamsc
left-pointing angle bracket = bra, U+2329 ISOtech
lang is NOT the same character as U+003C ‘less than sign’ or U+2039 ‘single left-pointing angle quotation mark’
right-pointing angle bracket = ket, U+232A ISOtech
rang is NOT the same character as U+003E ‘greater than sign’ or U+203A ‘single right-pointing angle quotation mark’
Geometric Shapes
lozenge, U+25CA ISOpub
Miscellaneous Symbols
black spade suit, U+2660 ISOpub
black here seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow
black club suit = shamrock, U+2663 ISOpub
black heart suit = valentine, U+2665 ISOpub
black diamond suit, U+2666 ISOpub

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